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Journal Publications

On modelling linked open statistical data.

A major part of Open Data concerns statistics such as economic and social indicators. Statistical data are structured in a multidimensional manner creating data cubes. Recently, National Statistical Institutes and public authorities adopted the Linked Data paradigm to publish their statistical data on the Web. Many vocabularies have been created to enable modeling data cubes as RDF graphs, and thus creating Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD). However, the creation of LOSD remains a demanding task mainly because of modeling challenges related either to the conceptual definition of the cube, or to the way of modeling cubes as linked data. The aim of this paper is to identify and clarify (a) modeling challenges related to the creation of LOSD and (b) approaches to address them. Towards this end, nine LOSD experts were involved in an interactive feedback collection and consensus-building process that was based on Delphi method. We anticipate that the results of this paper will contribute towards the formulation of best practices for creating LOSD, and thus facilitate combining and analyzing statistical data from diverse sources on the Web.

E. Kalampokis, D. Zeginis, K. Tarabanis (2018). On modelling linked open statistical data. Journal of Web Semantics [In press] (OPEN ACCESS). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2018.11.002

Data science empowering the public: Data-driven dashboards for transparent and accountable decisionmaking in smart cities.

Dashboards visualize a consolidated set data for a certain purpose which enables users to see what is happening and to initiate actions. Dashboards can be used by governments to support their decision-making and policy processes or to communicate and interact with the public. The objective of this paper is to understand and to support the design of dashboards for creating transparency and accountability. Two smart city cases are investigated showing that dashboards can improve transparency and accountability, however, realizing these benefits was cumbersome and encountered various risks and challenges. Challenges include insufficient data quality, lack of understanding of data, poor analysis, wrong interpretation, confusion about the outcomes, and imposing a pre-defined view. These challenges can easily result in misconceptions, wrong decision-making, creating a blurred picture resulting in less transparency and accountability, and ultimately in even less trust in the government. Principles guiding the design of dashboards are presented. Dashboards need to be complemented by mechanisms supporting citizens' engagement, data interpretation, governance and institutional arrangements.

R. Matheus, M. Janssen, D. Maheshwari (2018). Data science empowering the public: Data-driven dashboards for transparent and accountable decisionmaking in smart cities. Government Information Quarterly [In Press] (OPEN ACCESS). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2018.01.006

Leader in e-Government, Laggard in Open Data: Exploring the Case of Estonia

Estonia is often considered as a global leader in digital government. However, when it comes to Open Government Data (OGD), Estonia seems to be far behind many other countries according to international surveys and indices. This paper takes a closer look at the puzzle of Estonia’s low OGD maturity against the backdrop of a highly developed e-government by conducting an exploratory case study of Estonia using document analysis, survey data and semi-structured interviews. The results suggest that some of the e-government solutions that have been the key pillars of Estonian e-government success in the past may have become a barrier to understanding and implementing the concept of OGD. However, we are also beginning to see signs of a slowly increasing national OGD capacity thanks to the emergence of an active civic movement driving the development of OGD in Estonia.

K. McBride, M. Toots, T. Kalvet, R. Krimmer (2018). Leader in e-Government, Laggard in Open Data: Exploring the Case of Estonia. Revue francaise d'administration publique, Vol. 167, No. 3, pp. 613-625.https://doi.org/10.3917/rfap.167.0613

How does open government data driven co-creation occur? Six factors and a ‘perfect storm’; insights from Chicago's food inspection forecasting model

It is becoming increasingly clear that the concepts of open government data (OGD) and co-creation are related; however, there is currently only limited empirical material available exploring the link between the two. This paper aims to help clarify the relationship between these two concepts by exploring a recently coined phenomenon: OGD-driven co-created public services. These services 1) utilize or are driven by OGD; 2) are co-created by stakeholders from different groups; and 3) produce public value for society. Due to the relative newness of the phenomenon an inductive exploratory case study is undertaken on Chicago's use of OGD in the co-creation of their food safety inspection forecasting model. This model forecasts critical food safety violations at food serving establishments and sends inspectors to the highest risk establishments first. The results of this exploratory work led to the discovery of a ‘perfect storm’ of six factors that seem to play a key role in allowing OGD-driven public service co-creation to take place. These factors are motivated stakeholders, innovative leaders, proper communication, an existing OGD portal, external funding, and agile development.

K McBride, G Aavik, M Toots, T Kalvet, R Krimmer (2018) How does open government data driven co-creation occur? Six factors and a ‘perfect storm’; insights from Chicago's food inspection forecasting model, Government Information Quarterly [In press] (OPEN ACCESS).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2018.11.006

Linked Open Cube Analytics Systems: Potential and Challenges

Linked Open Cube Analytics (LOCA) systems enable the performance of analytics on top of multiple open statistical data (OSD) that reside in disparate portals. We present OSD's potential and highlight the problems hampering its integration and reuse. To overcome these problems, we introduce an approach for OSD integration. The proposed approach capitalizes on the data cube model and linked data technologies to enable unified access to multiple OSD published in disparate portals. Finally, we present an online analytical processing (OLAP) browser for linked data cubes as a proof of concept of LOCA systems. Throughout this article, we also outline the challenges that need to be addressed for the wide adoption of LOCA systems.

E. Kalampokis, E. Tambouris, K. Tarabanis (2016) Linked Open Cube Analytics Systems: Potential and Challenges IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 31, No.5, pp.89-92 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2016.82

Multidimensional Open Government Data

A large number of open government data concerns official and unofficial statistics. These data can be represented as multidimensional data. In this paper, we commence by presenting data fragmentation, an important challenge when exploiting open data. We thereafter introduce multidimensional data as a possible solution to overcome data fragmentation. More specifically, we outline the data cube model and linked open data technologies. In addition, we present a process for multidimensional linked open data publication and reuse. We also present a number of software tools that have been developed to manage multidimensional linked open data. We finally summarize the benefits and some of the main barriers.

E. Tambouris (2016). Multidimensional Open Government Data. eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government (JEDEM), Vol. 8, Num. 3, pp. 1-11 https://doi.org/10.29379/jedem.v8i3.444

Conference Papers

Is Government Welfare Able to Change? Analysing Efforts to Co-create an Improved Social Welfare System through Taking Advantage of a Collaborative Economy.

The number of Open Statistical Data available for reuse is rapidly increasing. Linked open data technology enables easy reuse and linking of data residing in different locations in a simple and straightforward manner. Yet, many people are not familiar with the technology standards and tools for making use of open statistical data. In this tutorial, we will introduce Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD) and demonstrate the use of LOSD technologies and tools to visualize open data obtained from various European Countries. We will also give the participants the opportunity to use these tools thus obtaining a personal experience on their capabilities.

G. Aavik, A. Mayer, K. McBride and R. Krimmer (2019, January). Is Government Welfare Able to Change? Analysing Efforts to Co-create an Improved Social Welfare System through Taking Advantage of a Collaborative Economy. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, (HICSS). IEEE. http://doi.org/10125/59732

Theory and practice of linked open statistical data.

The number of Open Statistical Data available for reuse is rapidly increasing. Linked open data technology enables easy reuse and linking of data residing in different locations in a simple and straightforward manner. Yet, many people are not familiar with the technology standards and tools for making use of open statistical data. In this tutorial, we will introduce Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD) and demonstrate the use of LOSD technologies and tools to visualize open data obtained from various European Countries. We will also give the participants the opportunity to use these tools thus obtaining a personal experience on their capabilities.

E. Tambouris, E. Kalampokis, M. Janssen, R. Matheus, P. Hermans, T. Kalvet (2018). Theory and practice of linked open statistical data. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age (p.130). ACM https://doi.org/10.1145/3209281.3209341

Using Linked Statistical Data to Improve Marine Search and Rescue Operations in Ireland

Producing new generation of digital public services from open data is of major interest to policymakers, practitioners and academia in the digital government community. Recent efforts in the area of Linked Statistical Data suggest that the associated multidimensional data cubes are excellent resources that could underpin data-driven digital public services. We describe in this paper a set of tools and approach to exploiting linked statistical data produced from the integration of streams of open marine datasets for developing digital services to support Marine Rescue Operations. We also highlight the opportunities enabled through co-creation activities as well as the benefit and challenges for scaling and sustaining the initiative.

A. Stasiewicz, M. A. Rezk, A. Ojo, E. Tambouris, E. Kalampokis, K. Tarabanis, A. Leadbetter (2018). Using Linked Statistical Data to Improve Marine Search and Rescue Operations in Ireland. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Practice of Electronic Governance (pp. 412-418). ACM https://doi.org/10.1145/3209415.3209511

Co-creating an Open Government Data Driven Public Service: The Case of Chicago’s Food Inspection Forecasting Model

Large amounts of Open Government Data (OGD) have become available and co-created public services have started to emerge, but there is only limited empirical material available on co-created OGD-driven public services. To address this shortcoming and explore the concept of co-created OGD-driven public services the authors conducted an exploratory case study. The case study explored Chicago’s use of OGD in the co-creation of a predictive analytics model that forecasts critical safety violations at food serving establishments. The results of this exploratory work allowed for new insights to be gained on co-created OGD-driven public services and led to the identification of six factors that seem to play a key role in allowing for a OGD-driven public service to be co-created. The results of the initial work also provide valuable new information that can be used to aid in the development and improvement of the authors’ conceptual model for understanding co-created OGD-driven public service.

McBride, K.; Aavik, G.; Kalvet, T.; Krimmer, R. (2018). Co-creating an Open Government Data Driven Public Service: The Case of Chicago’s Food Inspection Forecasting Model. Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 3-7 January, 2018. IEEE Computer Society http://doi.org/10125/50197

The Role of Linked Open Statistical Data in Public Service Co-Creation

Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD) and Open Government Data (OGD) are believed to contain the capability to drive the creation of new and innovative public services and provide increased levels of public value. It has also been proposed that these technologies have the potential to change the relationship between traditional public service providers and public service users by allowing any stakeholder to co-create a new service. There is currently a limited amount of empirical work demonstrating how LOSD and OGD may be exploited by non-traditional stakeholders to co-create new data-driven public services. As part of the Horizon2020 funded OpenGovIntelligence (OGI) project, six pilots are being conducted in six different EU countries (Belgium, Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania, and UK) that aim to demonstrate how OGD and LOSD may be exploited and lead to co-created data-driven public services. The aim of this ongoing research paper is to provide an overview of the OGI co-creation framework and methodology as well as present the current stage of the six different pilots and how OGD/LOSD has thus far allowed for co-creation to take place and public value to be created.

McBride, K.; Matheus, R.; Toots, M.; Kalvet, T.; Krimmer, R. (2018). The Role of Linked Open Statistical Data in Public Service Co-Creation. In: Ojo, A.; Kankanhalli, A.; Soares, D. (Ed.). Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (679−681).11th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, National University of Ireland Galway, 2018. Galway, Ireland: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3209415.3209446

Open Government Data Driven Co-Creation: Moving Towards Citizen-Government Collaboration

It is believed that co-creation may lead to public service quality improvements, the provision and creation of new and innovative services, and bring public service providers closer to their service users. There has been an increased interest and focus on how new technological innovations are enabling and facilitating co-creation; one such digital innovation is open government data (OGD). This paper examines a relatively new concept, that of co-created OGD-driven public services and aims to understand how the availability and exploitation of OGD to co-create new public services allows service users to become collaborators rather than customers of public service providers. An exploratory case study is conducted on a pilot project within Estonia where a new public service has been co-created through the exploitation of OGD. The initial results show that in order for an OGD-driven public service to be effectively co-created, a new understanding of the role of stakeholders is needed.

McBride, K.; Kalvet, T.; Toots, M.; Krimmer, R. (2018). Open Government Data Driven Co-Creation: Moving Towards Citizen-Government Collaboration. IFIP EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2018 Proceedings: EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2018, Danube University Krems, Septermber, 2018. Springer. ( Lecture Notes in Computer Science) http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98690-6_16

On using the core public sector vocabulary (CPSV) to publish a "citizen's guide" as linked data

A large number of public authorities worldwide publish descriptions of their administrative procedures (public services) in public service catalogues. These public services descriptions are often based on a national or an ad hoc description template (also referred to as model). Moreover, usually they are not provided in a machine-readable format. At the end of 2016, the European Commission released CPSV-AP 2.0 (Core Public Sector Vocabulary-Application Profile) which is a Core Vocabulary for public service modeling and publishing, incorporating Linked Data technologies. In this paper, we present an approach for using CPSV-AP 2.0 to model and publish, as Linked Data, public services descriptions of a regional public service catalogue. Concequently, we discuss the challenges that we encountered during the modeling and publishing procedure.

A. Gerontas, E Tambouris, K. Tarabanis (2018). On using the core public sector vocabulary (CPSV) to publish a "citizen's guide" as linked data. Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age (dg.o '18) https://doi.org/10.1145/3209281.3209362

Visualizing Linked Open Statistical Data to Support Public Administration

Open data have tremendous potential which however remains unexploited. A large part of open data is numerical and highly structured. We concentrate on those data and capitalize on linked open data (LOD) as the underlying technology. In this paper, we present a number of tools to facilitate publishing and reusing of linked open statistical data. We propose an architecture and implementation that allows developing custom visualization and analysis tools without knowledge of LOD technologies. We further present work towards deploying relevant tools in six different countries to improve decision-making and transparency and thus support public administration.

E. Tambouris, E. Kalampokis and K. Tarabanis (2017) Visualizing Linked Open Statistical Data to Support Public Administration, 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o 2017), ACM, pp.149-154 https://doi.org/10.1145/3085228.3085304

Towards a Linked Open Statistical Data Innovation Ecosystem

The aim of this paper is to present the Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD) Innovation Ecosystem that enables exploiting the full potential of LOSD. This ecosystem comprises of a framework, which includes processes, roadmaps, best practices etc., and a number of open specifications and software tools for publishing and reusing LOSD.

E. Tambouris, E. Kalampokis and K. Tarabanis (2017) Towards a Linked Open Statistical Data Innovation Ecosystem, New Techniques and Technologies for Statistics Conference (NTTS2017).

Methods and Tools for Publishing and Reusing Linked Open Statistical Data

The number of open data available for reuse is rapidly increasing. A large number of these data are numerical thus can be easily visualized. Linked open data technology enables easy reuse and linking of data residing in different locations. In this workshop, we will present a number of technologies and tools that are currently under development for visualizing linked open statistical data. We will demonstrate the use of these technologies and tools to visualize open data obtained from various European Union Member States ministries and other organizations. We will also give the workshop participants the opportunity to use these tools thus obtaining a personal experience on their capabilities.

E. Tambouris, E. Kalampokis, M. Janssen, R. Krimmer, K. Tarabanis (2017) Methods and Tools for Publishing and Reusing Linked Open Statistical Data, Workshop in the 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o 2017), ACM, pp.614-615 https://doi.org/10.1145/3085228.3085234

Exploiting Linked Statistical Data in Public Administration: The Case of the Greek Ministry of Administrative Reconstruction

Opening Government Data is a political priority in many countries. A large part of open data is numerical and concerns statistics thus can be easily processed and visualized. At the technical level, statistical data can be represented using linked open technologies. The resulting Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD) enables developing data-driven services that require automatic data processing. However, in many cases public agencies confront organizational, structural and cultural challenges when adopting novel technologies. The aim of this paper is to investigate the challenges faced by a ministry that is traditionally organized when exploiting LOSD. The preliminary results suggest that major challenges include the absence of a favorable culture and skills mainly related to data governance and software development. Therefore, essential ingredients seem to be missing to create a fertile ground for the use and exploitation of LOSD technology.

E. Chaniotaki, E. Kalampokis, E. Tambouris, K. Tarabanis and A. Stasis (2017) Exploiting Linked Statistical Data in Public Administration: The Case of the Greek Ministry of Administrative Reconstruction, 23rd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS2017)

Open data as enabler of public service co-creation: exploring the drivers and barriers

Open data is being increasingly looked at as a major driver of public service innovation. Open access to datasets and advanced analytical tools are believed to generate valuable new knowledge that can be turned into data-driven services. At the same time, open data is also believed to spur open governance and enable the engagement of various stakeholders in the co-creation of services. Despite this appealing vision of open data-driven co-creation of public services, we are far from understanding how it can be realized in practice. We turned to 63 experts and practitioners in a survey covering six European countries and found a multitude of barriers that need to be overcome first. Luckily we also found some drivers. This paper provides some first insights into these drivers and barriers and proposes policy recommendations to foster a data-driven transformation of public service creation.

M. Toots, K. McBride, T. Kalvet, R. Krimmer (2017). 2017 Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government (CeDEM). https://doi.org/10.1109/CeDEM.2017.12

A Framework for Data-Driven Public Service Co-production

Governments are creating and maintaining increasing amounts of data, and, recently, releasing data as open government data. As the amount of data available increases, so too should the exploitation of this data. However, this potential currently seems to be unexploited. Since exploiting open government data has the potential to create new public value, the absence of this exploitation is something that should be explored. It is therefore timely to investigate how the potential of existing datasets could be unleashed to provide services that create public value. For this purpose, we conducted a literature study and an empirical survey of the relevant drivers, barriers and gaps. Based on the results, we propose a framework that addresses some of the key challenges and puts forward an agile co-production process to support effective data-driven service creation. The proposed framework incorporates elements from agile development, lean startups, co-creation, and open government data literature and aims to increase our understanding on how open government data may be able to drive public service co-creation.

M. Toots, K. McBride, T. Kalvet, R. Krimmer, E. Tambouris, E. Panapoulou, E. Kalampokis, K. Tarabanis (2017). A Framework for Data-Driven Public Service Co-production. International Conference on Electronic Government. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64677-0_22

Facilitating the exploitation of Linked Open Statistical Data: JSON-QB API requirements and design criteria

Recently, many organizations have opened up their data for others to reuse. A major part of these data concern statistics such as demographic and social indicators. Linked Data is a promising paradigm for opening data because it facilitates data integration on the Web. Recently, a growing number of organizations adopted linked data paradigm and provided Linked Open Statistical Data (LOSD). These data can be exploited to create added value services and applications that require integrated data from multiple sources. In this paper, we suggest that in order to unleash the full potential of LOSD we need to facilitate the interaction with LOSD and hide most of the complexity. Moreover, we describe the requirements and design criteria of a JSON-QB API that (i) facilitates the development of LOSD tools through a style of interaction familiar to web developers and (ii) offers a uniform way to access LOSD. A proof of concept implementation of the JSON-QB API demonstrates part of the proposed functionality

D. Zeginis, E. Kalampokis, B. Roberts, R. Moynihan, E. Tambouris, K. Tarabanis (2017). Facilitating the exploitation of Linked Open Statistical Data: JSON-QB API requirements and design criteria. 5th International workshop on Semantic Statistics, co-located with the 16th International Semantic Web Conference http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1923/article-11.pdf

How to become a Smart City?: Balancing Ambidexterity in Smart Cities

Most cities have limited resources to become a smart city. Yet some cities have been more successful than others in becoming a smart city. This raises the questions why were some cities able to become smart, whereas other were not able to do so? This research is aimed at identifying factors influencing the shift towards becoming a smart city. In this way insight is gained into factors that governments can influence to become a smart city. First, Literature was reviewed to identify dimensions and factors enabling or impeding the process of becoming a smart city. These factors were used to compare two similar type of case studies. The cases took different paths to become a smart city and had different levels of success. This enabled us to identify factors influencing the move towards smart cities. The results reveal that existing infrastructures should be used and extended in such a way that they can facilitate a variety of different applications. Synergy from legacy systems can avoid extra expenditures. Having such an infrastructure in place facilitates the development of new organizational models. These models are developed outside the existing organization structure to avoid hinder from existing practices and organizational structures. This finding suggests that smart cities focussed on structural ambidexterity innovate quicker.

R. Matheus, M Janssen (2017). How to Become a Smart City?: Balancing Ambidexterity in Smart Cities. ICEGOV’17 Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance https://doi.org/10.1145/3047273.3047386

Open Statistics: The Rise of a new Era for Open Data?

A large part of open data concerns statistics, such as demographic, economic and social data (henceforth referred to as Open Statistical Data, OSD). In this paper we start by introducing open data fragmentation as a major obstacle for OSD reuse. We proceed by outlining data cube as a logical model for structuring OSD. We then introduce Open Statistics as a new area aiming to systematically study OSD. Open Statistics reuse and extends methods from diverse fields like Open Data, Statistics, Data Warehouses and the Semantic Web. In this paper, we focus on benefits and challenges of Open Statistics. The results suggest that Open Statistics provide benefits not present in any of these fields alone. We conclude that in certain cases OSD can realise the potential of open data.

E. Kalampokis, E. Tambouris, A. Karamanou, K. Tarabanis (2016). EGOV2016, LNCS 9820, pp.31-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44421-5_3

Linked data cubes: Research results so far

During the last years a growing body of literature studied Linked Data Cubes. The objective of this paper is to accumulate this body of knowledge and provide a preliminary analysis of the research re- sults in the area so far. Towards this end, we systematically reviewed the scientific literature to identify relevant studies. These studies were anal- ysed and synthesised in the form of a proposed conceptual framework, which was thereafter applied to further analyse this literature, hence gaining new insights into the field. The framework comprises three di- mensions, namely category of contribution, step of data analysis, and application area. The application of the framework resulted in interest- ing findings. For example, the majority of the contributions that focus on publishing linked data cubes are cases while the majority of the ex- ploitation contributions are software tools. Moreover, integration of data cubes remains largely unexamined in the literature. This paper, however, does not present the final results of the analysis of the literature as this is still an ongoing activity.

A. Karamanou, E. Kalampokis, E. Tambouris, K. Tarabanis (2016) Linked data cubes: Research results so far, SemStats2016 in conjuction with the 15th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2016), 17-21 October 2016, Kobe, Japan, CEUR-WS

Open Statistical Data: Potential and Challenges

Opening up data is a political priority worldwide. Linked open data is considered as the most mature technology for publishing and reusing open data. A large number of open data is numerical and actually concerns statistics. In the literature, statistical data have been heavily studied using the data cube model. Recently, ICT tools have emerged aiming to exploit linked open data technologies for providing advanced visualizations and analytics of open statistical data residing in geographically dispersed open data portals. The aim of this panel is to discuss the potential and challenges of open statistical data.

E. Tambouris, M. Janssen, E. Kalampokis, B. Roberts, P. Hermans, J. Whyte, T. Alcorn, K. Tarabanis (2016) Open Statistical Data: Potential and Challenges, Scholl, H. et al. (Eds.): Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, pp. 407-408, IOS Press http://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-670-5-407

Success in eVoting – Success in eDemocracy? The Estonian Paradox

Estonia has acquired the reputation of a successful e-voting country, and perhaps justifiably so. It was the first country in the world to enable remote online voting in nationwide elections in 2005 and the share of e-voters has been on a rise ever since, now reaching one-third of all voters. Against this backdrop of a seemingly flourishing e-democracy, we set out to ask if the country’s success in e-voting also implies its success in e-democracy in a broader sense. In a qualitative case study, we compare Estonia’s experience in e-voting with the implementation and outcomes of three e-participation projects to demonstrate that considerable discrepancies exist between the take-up and perceived success of e-voting vis-à-vis other e-democracy instruments. In light of these findings the paper further discusses the factors that are likely to account for these differences and highlights the need to look beyond the success of online voting for a holistic evaluation of the state of e-democracy in a given country.

M. Toots, T. Kalvet, R. Krimmer. (2016). Success in eVoting – Success in eDemocracy? The Estonian Paradox. 15th IFIP Electronic Government (EGOV) and 8th Electronic Participation (ePart) Conference. Guimarães, Portugal. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45074-2_5

Book chapters

Turning Open Government Data into Public Value: Testing the COPS Framework for the Co-Creation of OGD-Driven Public Services

A book chapter about open data and co-creation building on our OGI pilots’ experience is currently in press:

McBride, K.; Toots, M.; Kalvet, T.; Krimmer, R. (2018). Turning Open Government Data into Public Value: Testing the COPS Framework for the Co-Creation of OGD-Driven Public Services. In: M. P. Rodriguez Bolivar, K. J. Bwalya, C. Reddick (Ed.). Governance Models for Creating Public Values in Open Data Initiatives. Springer. (Public Administration and Information Technology)